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Theoretical Exploration on Organic Metabolism and Substance Cycle (1)

–To investigate the assorted contradictions within the two kingdom system principle and take a look at transiting to 3 kingdom system principle

Summary: The rise of microbiology didn’t convey a corresponding reform within the fundamental principle of life science, however resulted in varied marked contradictions within the conventional two kingdom system principle and requested it to strategy to 3 kingdom system principle. Matter needs to maneuver and microorganisms wish to be liberated, that could be a technique drawback within the fundamental principle of life sciences that we’ve got to face and to unravel urgently above all. 

On the idea of details, a breakthrough level and methodology would determine the breadth and depth of the exploration, and likewise determine the success and failure. Firstly, the truth mirrored that some inorganic and natural substances have already introduced their three bodily, chemical and chemicalized phases or states within the their motion, and likewise the chemicalized inorganic and natural substances have already been the distinctive stage or state of fabric motion (this stage or state is at all times ignored by the theories area). Secondly, the differentiation of practical substances from odd natural substances and the comparability of them with microorganisms uncovered that solely microorganisms might synthesize the practical substances and microorganisms had been the true promoter of biochemical reactions, in order to supply an vital foundation for us to discover why the substances would transfer, why the substances would transfer together with the organic chain and what relationship it could be between substance motion and organic metabolism. Thirdly, a brand new understanding of in vivo and in vitro, the restoration of chloroplasts and the investigation of the producing modes of inorganic ions, they revealed there was a transitional house for the pretreatment of the required substances of each crops and animals, and found that solely microorganisms might immediately relate to inorganic and natural substances, and crops and animals might solely not directly relate to inorganic and natural substances respectively. In consequence, the microorganisms “to point out each plant and animal traits” shaped a particular kingdom and that gave a brand new foundation for the classification of residing issues. Fourthly, by tracing the whereabouts of autotrophic microorganisms, it found the error on probably the most basic classification of microorganisms within the conventional principle, which brought on the autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms had been divorced from the unity of opposites, and in the meantime uncovered that the classification of “producers, customers and decomposers” was a basic mistake. Fifthly, a desk reflecting the precise software of the normal principle instructed us that the majority the phrases within the organic metabolism and substance cycle had been unsuitable, disclosing that the issues weren’t in piles, however all over the place. Sixthly, on the idea of ascertaining that the normal principle clearly misplaced autotrophic / heterotrophic microorganisms, the details illustrated efficiently the start and finish of organic cycle of drugs and made animals topic to crops, treating animals as a department of crops. Seventhly, built-in realities and varied experimental outcomes, it summarized the precise conditions of the microbial, plant and animal metabolism and substance cycle with a desk, which precisely mirrored the three phases and states of the fabric motion, overcome the “cluttered” phenomenon of assorted substances, and mirrored the metabolism amongst three kingdoms of residing issues linking each other, the residing issues and substances interdependent and the substance cycle pushed easily by organic metabolism. Eighthly, the listing additionally mirrored the true organic chain clearly.  

There isn’t any building with out destruction, and the destruction and building themselves are a paradoxical unity. Based mostly on the criticism to the normal principle, this paper accomplished easily a attempt to transit to the three kingdom system principle.

 Textual content

Essentially the most important attribute of life is “residing”, and its most important attribute is metabolism. The metabolism of life would immediately contain a collection of points comparable to substance transformation and cycle and many others. Subsequently, the research of metabolism is probably the most fundamental matter to discover the life sciences. 

Nonetheless, on an exploration of organic metabolism and substance cycle by the particular strategies of a brand new understanding of in vivo and in vitro, the restoration of the unique state of chloroplasts in addition to the investigation of the manufacturing modes of inorganic ions with the legislation of the unity of opposites, it could uncover some contradictions between the truth and the fundamental principle of present life sciences, which had been unable to mirror the target actuality of the organic metabolism and substance cycle. And these contradictions are too giant and too removed from the truth to be hardly imagined. 

It’s a full course of to find contradictions, analyze contradictions and resolve contradictions. Since found the contradictions, it signifies that we’ve got began analyzing them, and laid a basis to additional analyze them, and in the meantime additionally may provide an opportunity for us to have a attempt to resolve them. 

1. Institution of latest ideas 

The institution of latest ideas not solely may assist us to research and uncover the assorted contradictions within the conventional principle, but additionally is the required preparations in transition to the three kingdom system principle. 

1.1. Annotation of nouns 

1.1.1.Varied states of inorganic and natural substances throughout their motion 

Though matter is at all times in fixed movement, it could come right into a relative relaxation in its fixed movement and preserve a comparatively steady chemical kind. As soon as this chemical kind is destroyed, it could break the relative relaxation, make it into one other kind and trigger it to have a chemical change. As soon as its chemical kind is damaged and constantly managed and utilized by residing issues, it could transfer alongside the course of organic cycle of drugs. It isn’t tough to search out within the exploration that life and matter are in an reverse and untied relation within the organic cycle of drugs. Matter is the bottom for the existence of life and life depends upon matter; and matter would consistently change its kind due to the metabolism of life and the matter movement depends upon the life movement. 

In keeping with the reflection of actuality and varied experiments, some states of drugs involving in organic metabolism have already existed now, and likewise made up their each stage of their motion, however the division of their phases has not been held and the assorted states of drugs of their motion haven’t their corresponding identify, which grew to become a state of affairs that some substances have “existed the truth is however not in identify” and the present ideas are unable to mirror the fabric motion precisely. The truth of organic metabolism and substance cycle ask us to need to divide the phases of fabric motion and to have to call their life like states throughout their motion, as a way to mirror their precise motion. 

① Bodily inorganic substances and bodily natural substances. Bodily inorganic substances, which might be the pure substances within the inorganic world, imply the bodily substances current within the inorganic world, which might be in a relative steady state within the pure setting, comparable to minerals, daylight and air. Bodily natural substances, which might be the pure substances within the natural world, imply the bodily substances current within the natural world, which might even be in a relative steady state within the pure setting, comparable to plant physique and animal physique. 

② Chemical inorganic substances and chemical natural substances. Chemical inorganic substances imply the chemical state of physicalinorganicsubstances, that are equal to the inorganic substances referred to as now, comparable to mineral parts and carbon dioxide and many others. Chemical natural substances imply the chemical state of bodily natural substances, that are equal to the natural substances referred to as now, comparable to carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and organicminerals. 

Observe: At current, crops are sometimes referred to as natural substances in some educating supplies and reference supplies, however there are some variations right here between crops and natural substances. ⑴ the plant physique reveals its bodily property and the natural substances present its chemical property; ⑵ the natural substances are the overall identify of the chemical compositions of plant and animal substances, not merely imply crops. To satisfy the folks’s conventional practices, this paper would name crops as natural substances typically in some immaterial locations. 

③ Chemicalized inorganic substances and chemicalized natural substances. Chemicalized inorganic substances meanthechemical inorganic substances acquired a chemical change, such because the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen ions and mineral ions (name all of them inorganic ions on this paper). Chemicalized natural substances imply the chemical natural substances acquired a chemical change, comparable to monosaccharide, fatty acid, amino acid and organicminerals (as a result of wanting the corresponding information, the chemicalization process of the organicminerals wouldn’t be investigated on this paper). 

In consequence, the substances kind three shifting phases respectively within the inorganic and natural worlds, that are the bodily, chemical and chemicalized phases, and kind three corresponding shifting states which might be each reverse and unified, that are bodily inorganic (natural) substances, chemical inorganic (natural) substances and chemicalized inorganic (natural) substances. 

1.1.2. Practical substances and odd (natural) substances 

The practical substancesare to advertise the motion of odd substances, and there’s a relationship each reverse and unified between them and odd substances. 

Practical substances imply the catalyzing ones within the biochemical reactions, comparable to enzymes, coenzymes and nutritional vitamins (1, P31), and odd (natural) substances imply the catalyzed ones within the biochemical reactions, comparable to carbohydrates, lipids, odd proteins and organicminerals (In reality, there may be an reverse and united relation between enzymes and odd inorganic substances, however this paper will make an investigation mainlyon the connection between enzymes and odd natural substances). 

Some college textbooks have categorized hormones, along with enzymes and nutritional vitamins, into the practical elements of the natural substances (1, P31). Nonetheless, hormones wouldn’t to participate within the metabolic actions, and solely play a job within the regulation of metabolism. So they’re totally different from the practical substances, comparable to enzymes and nutritional vitamins, within the biochemical reactions, and there may be an reverse and untied relation between them and all of the enzymes and nutritional vitamins, in addition to the odd natural substances. Whether or not would their regulating operate on the greater degree imply a detailed relationship between hormones and genes? It will not be mentioned right here (right here, left an area for the involvement of genes). 

1.1.3. Plant metabolism and animal metabolism 

① Phytosynthesis and restoration. Phytosynthesis means to supply plant substances from inorganic substances (not directly), and restoration means to present plant substances again to inorganic substances (1, P23). 

② Decomposition (breakdown) and composition (synthesis). Decomposition means the breakdown of the crops or natural substances within the inner-environment of the animal physique (extra precisely talking, this decomposition is to be carried out by the heterotrophic microorganisms), and composition means tosynthesize the decomposed substances into the animal ones.Decomposition and compositionbelong to the subprocedure within the organic cycle of drugs. 

1.1.4. Water in organic metabolism 

Water, it’s the most acquainted and customary matter to the general public, however may not be aware of it in some points. On synthesizing varied analysis information and textbooks, you’d discover that water is totally different from different supplies and has its personal particular character. It’s all over the place within the biosphere, and belongs to the required setting for the existence of life. Its particular character falls on the distinction from different substances altering on a regular basis within the physique, however at all times retains two kinds: One is the fabric kind, and one other is the setting kind. 

As a substance, water can present hydrogen and oxygen ions, and as a service, it could switch electrons as electrolyte and bear different substances to circulation. 

This reveals that water isn’t solely probably the most basic setting essential for all times (Appears to play a job along with the sodium chloride), but additionally probably the most basic materials essential for all times. Subsequently, we might not mirror the hydrogen and oxygen ions coming from the water as a substance, however deal with the water as a service because the setting essential for biochemical response, and never deliberately classify it underneath which materials. 

1.2. New understanding of in vivo and in vitro 

Methods to perceive in vivo and in vitro isn’t inappropriate. As an illustration, the territorial waters of a rustic are a part of its maritime territory, which needs to be interpreted because the home, with some closure properties. However additionally they talk with worldwide waters and oceans, with a sure diploma of openness. This closure and openness could not must be paid an overclose consideration to on the nationwide sovereignty and each of them could be handled because the territorial jurisdiction of the nation. Nonetheless, it could rely for a lot when they’re utilized to the understanding of the animal physique. 

The connection between in vivo and in vitro, in essence, entails the right way to apply the fundamental rules of philosophy within the animal physique and the right way to perceive the animal physique. 

In vivo and in vitro right here imply the within and outdoors of torso (trunk) respectively. If the tortuous digestive tract was shortened and brought on it to go straight contained in the trunk, it could end up that the animal trunk is the same as a thick walled tube. Its mouth and anus would respectively be its entrance and exit, and the in vivo and in vitro needs to be interlinked. Based mostly on this understanding, we’ve got at all times been taking the contents and house within the digestive tract for in vivo, however the truth is, they’re a part of in vitro (or the transitional “territorial waters” from in vitro to in vivo), and the animal physique is in essence to imply the tube wall besides the contents and house within the digestive tract, solely containing its personal physique cells (similar to the inland of the territory). 

In consequence, the meals and microorganisms on this interior setting of the digestive tract have been taken away from in vivo, as a result of they keep basically in vitro although residing “in vivo”, and usually are not part of the physique (however as part of the sphere of the physique affect), solely because the passers alongside the digestive tract. On this means, the connection between the physique and nature has introduced unification, and made the physique, plant (chyme) and microorganisms within the digestive tract right into a relative unified complete. 

Philosophically, in relation to the fixed dynamic nature, the physique is quickly in a relative static state throughout the interval of the animal life, which may be very straightforward to be understood. However how does this static physique come into opposition to the dynamic pure world? And the right way to kind unification? Subsequently, it basically can also be a fundamental drawback of philosophy to search out out the motion of drugs to correspond to the relative static physique, after which correspond to the plant unity of opposites, as a way to attain unification with crops. 

The main passway that the animal physique absorbs vitamins from nature is the digestive tract. Subsequently, the meals and microorganisms passing by the digestive tract are the consistently dynamic substances relative to the comparatively static physique. These substances are equal to the pure world similar to the tube wall of the physique. On this level, it isn’t tough to be accepted in philosophy. Sadly, within the conventional principle and the truth we’ve got at all times perceive and deal with the meals within the digestive tract and microorganisms as in vivo, which opposite to the above philosophical precept, as a result of if the meals and microorganisms within the digestive tract had been understood in vivo, it could be equal to the physique closed and the physique could be remoted from exterior, and be unable to kind a dynamic and static unification, which engendered an error in idea. 

1.3. Restoration of chloroplasts 

The differentiation of in vivo and in vitro of crops appears comparatively advanced as a result of chloroplasts. The substances absorbed by plant roots from soil clearly come from in vitro, however the ones absorbed by plant leaves appear to occur in vivo, as a result of the chloroplasts are inside the plant physique (similar to the digestive tract within the animal physique). Concerning the chloroplasts, the unanimous view of the present scientific circles is, “The endosymbiotic principle considerations the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts, that are organelles of eukaryotic cells. In keeping with this principle, these originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts, which got here to stay inside eukaryotic cells. The speculation postulates that the mitochondria developed from cardio micro organism (most likely proteobacteria, associated to the rickettsias), and that the chloroplast developed from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria (autotrophic prokaryotes). The proof for this principle is compelling as an entire, and it’s now typically accepted (2)”. For the reason that chloroplast operate got here from the evolution of the photosynthetic micro organism and “the proof for this principle is compelling as an entire”, we’ve got to return chloroplast to its authentic state earlier than the endosymbiosis occurred primarily based on this principle, and deal with the interior setting of the chloroplasts as a particular digestive tract of the plant leaves (that’s the preprocessing house of the matter and vitality for plant absorption) whereas their operate is classed into the top of autotrophic microorganisms. Definitely, maybe crops are capable of phytosynthesize some practical substances, however such a operate needs to be genetic from autotrophic microorganisms and nonetheless must be put underneath autotrophic microorganisms. 

Right here must make a footnote. Though all of the scientists have acknowledged the chloroplasts developed from microorganisms, they nonetheless don’t dare, even don’t wish to put the chloroplast operate underneath microorganisms as a result of restricted to the precept of “experiment first” (life sciences is harassed as an experimental science), which might be the chief motive that solely focuses on heterotrophic microorganisms (such because the classification of producers, customers and decomposers), in order that autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms usually are not capable of kind the unity of opposites, and there are numerous contradictions between the normal principle and actuality. 

Based mostly on the above understanding and actuality, all of the wanted substances of animals and crops want a preprocessing transition, and the areas for the preprocessing transition could be: the inner-environment of the animal digestive tract, the inner-environment of the chloroplasts and the soil house coated by the plant roots. Strictly talking, these areas shouldn’t be counted in vivo, however in vitro. Thus, it has damaged the conflicting interpretations that the preprocess of part of the plant wanted substances is in vitro and a component is in vitro however the decomposition of all of the animal wanted substances is in vivo, thereupon then reaching a unification on the digestive absorption of the wanted substances of plant roots and leaves, and likewise reaching a unification with the digestive absorption of animals and crops. 

On the identical time, this understanding can be utilized to the animal’s respiratory tract and urogenital tract (the success of test-tube child has added a strong footnote for this understanding). Since all of the mammals’ fertilization and being pregnant are carried out in vitro, thus it additionally comes right into a unification on the fertilization and being pregnant of all of the mammals, reptiles, birds and fishes. 

Based mostly on the instance of the thick-walled tube and the philosophical understanding in addition to the scientific affirmation of the chloroplast operate, the chyme and microorganisms within the animal digestive tract, the microorganisms in soil in addition to the substances pending for the absorption of plant roots and being preprocessed within the chloroplasts are fairly apparent to be in vitro, and are a part of the dynamic pure world similar to the interior wall of our thick-walled tube physique. Such an understanding can remedy some fundamental issues the right way to perceive the connection between life and nature, and lots of issues puzzling us for a very long time may be solved. 

1.4. About practical substances (enzymes, coenzymes and nutritional vitamins) 

With reference to practical substances, it’s most tough at current to verify the relationships between enzymes and odd proteins in addition to microorganisms. 

1.4.1. Relationship between enzymes and odd proteins 

At any time when talked about enzymes, the phrases we might hear and browse most frequently are “enzymes are proteins”, simply as more likely to hear that “the backs of all the nice masters are within the rear once they sat on picket bench”, feeling this saying isn’t unsuitable in any respect. Nonetheless, these two varieties of drugs that their “backs are within the rear” are fairly totally different of their capabilities and properties. Based mostly on the present obtainable information, we might make a listing to match enzymes and odd proteins: 

Comparability listing of the properties ofenzymes and odd proteins

(Please consult with http://www.bbfactor.com/group.php?keyno=26)

It may be seen from the comparability listing that, though enzymes and odd proteins are a part of proteins, they’ve utterly totally different capabilities and properties, and kind an apparent reverse and united relation between them. 

You’ll observe from the textbooks “Normal Biology” if you end up cautious that the cautious authors solely talked about that there are enzymes in cells, however virtually didn’t point out that the plant and animal cells might synthesize enzymes. The existence and synthesis of enzymes are two utterly totally different conditions, and the existence of enzymes doesn’t imply that they’re synthesized within the cells, as a result of the phenomenon can not exchange the essence. It isn’t unsuitable that enzymes belong to proteins, however it could be considerably arbitrary or careless to say the enzymes synthesized within the cells when discovered the “practical proteins” existed within the plant and animal cells. Even the assorted proteins within the plant and animal our bodies, all of the amino acids composed of them additionally come from in vitro. If the enzymes as one among these proteins had been synthesized in vivo, it could not be based in logic. Thus, the enzymes ought to come from in vitro. 

Subsequently, enzymes and odd proteins needed to be handled in a different way. 

1.4.2. Relationship between enzymes and microorganisms 

Concerning the relationship between residing issues and nature, the textbooks of highschool and college have a identical expression: “all the parts composing protoplasm might be present in nature. In reference to the chemical evolution technique of the origin of life, we are able to see there may be sure relevance between residing and non-living issues (3, P2)” 

May even see from the Organic textbooks that the connection between inorganic and natural worlds has not been made certain, and it is just a presumption at current and the reworking relationship between them has not been solved actually. 

Summing up all of the analysis information, we are able to listing the traits of enzymes and microorganisms, and distinction them one another, please consult with the next desk: 

Distinction desk of the traits of enzymes and microorganisms

(Please consult with http://www.bbfactor.com/group.php?keyno=26)

These traits of enzymes and microorganisms are the true reflection of the truth and experiments. It is extremely apparent there are a corresponding relation and an interior connection between them. 

Built-in the “Comparability listing of the properties of enzymes and odd proteins” and “Distinction desk of the traits of enzymes and microorganisms”, we could make the conclusions as observe: 

① There’s an reverse and united relation between enzymes and odd proteins in addition to odd natural substances. Subsequently, enzymes and odd proteins in addition to odd natural substances would belong to the identical type of substances under no circumstances.   

② Enzymes can have a direct relationship and first bind with chemical inorganic substances and chemical natural substances and microorganisms can immediately receive nourishment from inorganic and natural substances. This attribute of enzymes and microorganisms has already associated them carefully. 

③ Enzymes are the substances appeared earlier than proteins and odd natural substances and coming from in vitro. So they might be synthesized by plant and animal cells under no circumstances. Autotrophic microorganisms are producing enzymes throughout their eradicating electrons of inorganic substances within the biochemical reactions, however the inorganic substances eliminated electrons haven’t been synthesized into plant substances, so the enzymes are a substance existed earlier than crops. Once more for example, earlier than meals didn’t entered into the animal digestive tract, there have saved a certain quantity of enzymes within the plant and animal our bodies, which is the state of affairs that the enzymes have existed earlier than substrates. When the substrates (they’re referred to as substrates simply because they start to have a relation with microorganisms) arrived within the intestinal tract, the microorganisms would excrete enzymes whereas they’re acquiring vitamins from the substrates, in order that that is the state of affairs that the enzymes and substrates come concurrently. However at the moment when the enzymes had been produced within the animal intestinal tract, the decomposed substances haven’t been absorbed by animal physique, even not be synthesized into proteins and different substances wanted by animal cells, in order that the proteins and animal cells ought to come after the enzymes. 

Enzymes can solely come from microorganisms. For the reason that enzymes cannot be generated by the plant and animal cells, and so they can solely be produced in residing cells, then, solely microorganisms are the residing cells earlier than the existence of crops and animals, and solely microorganisms have the circumstances and to synthesize enzymes. 

Enzymes is a particular kind that microorganisms participate within the biochemical reactions. 

1.4.3. Supply of nutritional vitamins 

With regard to the advantages and results of nutritional vitamins, they’ve been launched in lots of articles. Persons are additionally fairly aware of that the animal physique is unable to synthesize nutritional vitamins, and a few of them must be supplemented from meals. Nonetheless, the place are the nutritional vitamins in meals from? This query little or no arouses folks’s curiosity, however it’s truly a particularly critical matter of precept, as a result of it could contain to the microorganisms’ positioning within the life sciences. 

As for the sources of nutritional vitamins, most of supplies mirrored that the microorganisms within the animal digestive tract might produce a few of them for the physique to soak up, and the remainder got here from meals. However some supplies additionally mirrored that nutritional vitamins had been synthesized by crops, in the meantime instructed that autotrophic microorganisms and E. coli, and many others. might synthesize them. And even particular person supplies mentioned that microorganisms couldn’t synthesize them. In a phrase, nutritional vitamins have develop into an unsolved thriller. However there may be one reply has been very clear that the animal physique is unable to synthesize nutritional vitamins. 

In keeping with the circumstances of making ready nutritional vitamins within the human gut, we’ve got recognized the a number of essential conditions that they’re produced: (1) there should be substances; (2) there should be moisture; (3) there should be the involvement of microorganisms. 

Now that we’ve got recognized the required conditions for the synthesis of nutritional vitamins, it could rule out the likelihood that crops might synthesize them, as a result of there isn’t a microorganism in plant physique (the microorganisms finishing up the photosynthesis should be counted the exterior of crops). In consequence, it’s left solely microorganisms within the creatures capable of synthesize nutritional vitamins. Whether or not they could be autotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms, and the way crops would take up them into their our bodies, that’s one other matter, however the origin or supply of nutritional vitamins has been outlined in an inevitable restrict on the whole. 

At current, the research of nutritional vitamins is deeper than enzymes. At the very least we’ve got made certain that the human (or animal) physique cannot synthesize nutritional vitamins, and likewise additional ascertained the intestinal microorganisms can synthesize them and they are often absorbed by the physique (we’ve got not admitted that the massive gut can take up enzymes at current). Since nutritional vitamins are additionally a part of the required practical substances for plant and animal metabolism, their supply could be in step with the enzymes’, and each of them come from microorganisms. 

Within the biochemical reactions, not solely there may be such a relationship between enzymes and odd proteins, but additionally so does between all of the practical substances and odd natural substances. Subsequently, this paper treats the enzymes, coenzymes and nutritional vitamins because the secretions of microorganisms and will get them shifting alongside the organic chain. 

1.5. Natural minerals 

You may search by web, in accordance with the usual of Affiliation of American Feed Management Officers (AAFCO), natural minerals might be categorized into 6 classes: 

⑴ Steel amino acid advanced;

⑵ Steel (particular amino acid) advanced;

⑶ Steel amino acid chelate;

⑷ Steel proteinate;

⑸ Steel polysaccharide advanced;

⑹ Steel propionate(4)。 

Subsequently, this paper would deal with the natural minerals and the bodily or chemical inorganic substances (comparable to minerals and chemical parts)in differentways.In keeping with the above definitions could be seen, the natural substances are simply basically those that the chemical inorganic substances bonded with the vitality ones. In animal digestive tract, they need to nonetheless be absorbed by animal physique solely after their giant molecules had been damaged down into small ones. 

(to be persevering with)